The overarching theme of this paper is that the racialization of mass incarceration in America, which has been taking place since the latter part of the last century, and continues to this very day, is characterized by what I term, the “Jim Crow effect".
Cecil Hunt, The Jim Crow Effect: Denial, Dignity, Human Rights, and Racialized Mass Incarceration, 29 J. Civ. Rts. & Econ. Dev 15 (2016)